क्लिनिकल और सेलुलर इम्यूनोलॉजी जर्नल

क्लिनिकल और सेलुलर इम्यूनोलॉजी जर्नल
खुला एक्सेस

आईएसएसएन: 2155-9899


The NACHT, LRR and PYD Domains-Containing protein 3 (NLRP3) Inflammasome Mediates Inflammation and Voiding Dysfunction in a Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Rat Model of Cystitis

Francis M Hughes Jr, James G Kennis, Melissa N Youssef, Danielle W Lowe, Brooke E Shaner and J Todd Purves

Objective: NOD-like receptors (NLRs) sense sterile and non-sterile signals and form inflammasomes which trigger an inflammatory response through the activation of caspase-1 and release of IL-1β. Recently we have shown the presence of several NLRs in the bladder urothelia and demonstrated the importance of NLRP3 in bladder outlet obstruction and cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis, both models of sterile inflammation. In this study we explore a role for NLRP3 in mediating the response to LPS, a key antigen of uropathogenic bacteria.

Method: In order to bypass the protective glycosaminoglycan layer lining the urothelium, LPS was directly injected into the bladder wall of Sprague-Dawley rats. Glyburide (a NLRP3 inhibitor) or vehicle was administered orally prior to and after injection. Rats were analyzed 24 h later. Inflammasome activity (caspase-1 activity, IL-1β release) and inflammation (Evan’s Blue extravasation, bladder weight) were assessed, as was physiological bladder function (urodynamics).

Results: Injection of LPS stimulated inflammasome activation (caspase-1 activity) and the release of IL-1β into the urine which was prevented by glyburide. Likewise, LPS increased inflammation, (bladder weight and the extravasation of Evan’s blue dye), and this was reversed by glyburide. Functionally, animals injected with saline alone demonstrated decreased voiding volume as measured by urodynamics. In the presence of LPS, additional urinary dysfunction was evident with decreased voiding pressures and threshold pressures. The decrease in voiding pressure was blocked by glyburide but the decrease in threshold pressure was not, suggesting that LPS has significant effects mediated by inflammasome-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

Conclusion: Overall, the results demonstrate the potential importance of inflammasomes in bacterial cystitis as well as the ability of the bladder wall injection technique to isolate the in vivo effects of specific inflammasome ligands to the physiological changes associated with cystitis.